Although breast cancer is identical with the woman, 1 % of all breast cancers occur in men. There is the influence of ethnic groups in the percentage of cases of male breast cancer.
For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, up to 14% of breast cancer cases are men, whereas in the United States, the highest percentages held by African-American male, medium by Caucasian men, and lowest by Hispanic men.
Men still have breast tissue but with a much smaller amount and estrogen-progesterone levels. We should realize that the female hormone is strongly associated with breast cancer risk. In some cases, men have high estrogen levels caused by Klinefelter chromosome syndrome.
This syndrome causes man unable to produce testosterone in the amount that should be. This syndrome is typically caused by several factors, such as the loss of the testicles, obesity, and chronic liver disease.
This syndrome encourages male breast enlargement, commonly called gynecomastia. Some men have this syndrome, but if it occurs on only one side, it must be consulted as soon as possible. The old men prone to this condition.
Men who have had radiotherapy to the chest are likely to develop cancer risk. In fact, two thirds of the female breast cancer cases are caused by estrogen but all cases of male breast cancer caused by estrogen (ER +).
It becomes clear that estrogen is the main factor of male breast cancer. A small portion of the population is containing genes bequeathed to breast cancer. Any man of the family with breast cancer gene (BRCA1 or 2), is at greater risk.
In men, breast cancer is characterized by hard lump, nipple changes, lump under the arm, all of what experienced by female patients. However, the survival rates among male patients are much better as so far 85% of patients survived more than 10 years after being diagnosed. However diagnosis is more difficult to do relating to embarrassing stigma of male breast cancer.
Almost all patients need a mastectomy, and some of them require radiotherapy as well, especially if the cancer cells have invaded the lymph nodes. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen is strongly recommended. Unfortunately, this drug is not very effective because in male patients, most of the production of testosterone is converted to estrogen.
Adverse effects of stigma
Stigma is the main reason of late rescue. Most patients initially reluctant to seek help for breast disorder symptoms they experienced. Not only that, men tend to experience side effects of breast cancer treatment, such as sexual dysfunction, fatigue, and changes in body image as a result of the use of Tamoxifen.